I have a question about the interactions between computers with personal and business licences. I know that the business licence can access personal computers. Would multiple personal computers be able to access a single business computer, but not at the same time? Or would each computer need their own licence?
To have a licensed connection, only one side of a connection needs a license. Keeping this logic in mind, your use case will work: Having one licensed device as the remote device and several unlicensed devices connecting to the remote device (not at the same time).
But please know that the license is not attached to the device/TeamViewer ID itself, but to a TeamViewer account. So you will need to make sure that the licensed account is logged in to the Computers & Contacts list on the remote device.