I was unable to launch TV13 until edited my fstab removing noexec option from /home partition. It is a bit strange because there are no files in TV13 package that should be launched from /home.
As this is the only thread regarding TeamViewer and mounting /home noexec, I'll post my solution here:
After stumbling around for quite a while with strace and auditd to find out, what TeamViewer is trying to execute in /home without success, I moved ~/.cache/TeamViewer to another partition without noexec flag and so I discovered that this is a Qt problem regarding qmlcache that needs exec permissions.
This problem should be solved with Qt 5.11 (see QTBUG-58508).
As workaround, setting the following environment variable will also solve the problem: