So I had the same issue about Teamviewer Host not starting on one computer and I will say the steps I did to solve it so you can check if it helps to see a path to the real problem. My Network doesn't have a domain, it has a LoadBalance managing IP's I have 3 Dell and 1 Samsung, all notebooks and only 1 Dell had problems (the older one) Teamviewer wouldn't start even after logon, if I double click the icon it would ask a security confirmation and work fine. First I tried the "ServicesPipeTimeout" solution but it didn't help https://community.teamviewer.com/t5/TeamViewer-General/Teamviewer-service-not-startup/td-p/4929 Then I "enabled the interactive mode for the service" and it started to work fine. After reading this post I turned it off again. The interesting fact is that it keeps working fine, so for me the problem is around that base. Now I have the Interactive mode turned off and Teamviewer Host 13 working fine.
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I tried the same thing again another day and it "worked" in that I was able to set up the PI as a computer in TeamViewer. That was cool, except that this version of TeamViewer really isn't setup to work with RetroPie, so it would share the screen if the screen was showing the terminal but would show a blank screen when anything else was happening. Oh well, it's not a supported version of the OS so I guess that's what happens when you try unsupported stuff.
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