@Stijn2 macOS requires explicit user consent for apps to be able to access certain functionality. TeamViewer is required to obtain user consent to use these features:
Accessibility to control the Mac's mouse/keyboard (since macOS 10.14)
Screen Recording to capture screen contents (since macOS 10.15)
Full Disk Access to browse/access all files and folders on disk for File Transfer (since macOS 10.15)
To my knowledge, Apple supports automating Accessibility and Full Disk Access, but not Screen Recording, through MDM / PPPC payloads. Consent to use Screen Recording needs to be given on the Mac (no admin password required).
If you are having trouble using PPPC payloads with your MDM:
Most MDM vendors provide excellent documentation and support, so they will hopefully be able to give you advice specific to your MDM system. It should be possible to grant Accessibility and Full Disk Access consent through any MDM.
As mentioned above – to my knowledge – it is not possible to configure Screen Recording consent through MDM.
If you are not managing your Macs using an MDM:
As far as I know, it is not possible to use the necessary PPPC payloads without an MDM (e.g. by manually installing a configuration profile).
Without an MDM, it is probably advisable to focus on having a user in front of the Mac give Screen Recording consent (they will not need an admin password to do so). After they have given that, you can see what they are doing and guide them to accomplish whatever else needs to be done.
If you need to control the Mac's mouse/keyboard, macOS requires an admin password to consent to Accessibility access.
And one additional remark: In TeamViewer 15.2 it is no longer necessary to give access to TeamViewer_Desktop. If you still have an entry for it in System Preferences, you can disregard it.