It would be helpful for us to investigate if you can tell us the country you are in.
Currently, TeamViewer introduces account validation to unverified users in China which corporates with validation code in the text message. When you delete your TeamViewer account we delete all data related to your account. However, the phone number associated with the deleted TeamViewer account cannot be used to validate a new account until 2 months after the deletion.
For more information, feel free to check out this KBA and follow up on this post for more updates.